Social, economic and political effects of migration

Migration affects bot the area of origin and the area of desintation. The effects of migration are social, economic and politial
Issues of economic migration: source country
Economic costs include:
· The loss of young adult labour force
· The loss of those with skills and entrepreneurial talents, which may slow economic development
· Regions where-out migration takes place may suffer from a spiral decline that is difficult to halt
· The loss of labour may deter inward investment by private organisation, increasing dependence on governmental initiatives
Economic benefits include:
· Reduced under-employment in the source country
· Returning migrants bring new skills to the country, which may help to revitalise the home economy
· Many migrants send remittances home and much of this money is reinvested in the some economy in projects such as new buildings and services
· There is less pressure on resources in the area, including basic supplies such as food essential services such as healthcare
Social costs include:
· The perceived benefits of migration encourage more of the same generation to migrate, which has a
detrimental effect on social structure
· There is a disproportionate number of females left behind
· The non-return of migrants causes an imbalance in the population pyramid
· Returning retired migrants may impose a social cost on the community if support mechanisms are not
in place to cater for them
Social benefits include:
· The population density is reduced and the birth rate decreases , as t is the younger adults who
· Remittances sent home by economic migrants can finance improved education and health
· Returning retired migrants increase social expectations in the community, for example, the demand for better leisure facilities
Political effects include:
· Policies to encourage natural increase
· Policies to encourage immigration to counteract outflow or to develop resources
· Requests for international aid

Issues of economic migration: destination country
Economic costs include:
· The costs of educating the migrants’ children have to be home
· There is an over-dependence of some industries on migrant labour, e.g. the construction in the UK
· Much of the money earned, including pension payments, is repatriated to the country of origin
· Increased numbers of people add to the pressure on resources, such as health services and education
Economic benefits include:
· Economic migrants tend to take up the less desirable jobs
· The host country gains skilled labour at reduced cost
· The ‘skills gap’ that exists in many host countries is filled by qualified migrants
· Costs of retirement are transferred back to the source country
Social costs include:
· The dominance of males is reinforced, especially in countries where the status of women is low – for
example, in the Persian Gulf states
· Aspects of cultural identity are lost, particularly among second-generation migrants
· Segregated areas of similar ethnic groups are created, and schools are dominated by migrant
Social benefits include:
· Creation of a multi-ethnic society increases understanding of other cultures
· There is an influx of new and/or revitalised providers of local services – for example, Turkish baths and local corner shops
· There is a growth of ethnic retailing and areas associated with ethnic food outlets – for example,
the ‘curry mile’ in Rusholme, Manchester
Political effects include:
· Discrimination against ethnic groups and minorities which may lead to civil unrest and
· Call for controls on immigration
· Entrenchment of attitudes which may encourage