The demographic transition model (DTM)

The Demographic Transition Model (DTM)
· The demographic transition model describes what has happened to birth and death rates in MEDC’s since 1800 and is based on the UK. It has five stages.
· Not all countries go through the five stages as is the case with many LEDC’s.
· Most countries can be allocated to a stage of the model and this can also indicate the countries state of development.
· As well as economic development, other important influences affecting population growth include social, religious, political and environmental factors.

Stage 1
· High birth rates and high death rates, so lo natural increase and little population growth. Very few, if any populations are in stage 1 now – rainforest tribes
Stage 2
· High Birth rates but as death rates fall population grows rapidly –
Main reasons –
· No birth control
· High infant death rates
· More children to work on farms
· Religious beliefs
· Improved medical care
· More vaccinations, hospitals etc
· Cleaner water supplies/sewage
· Improved Food supplies
Stage 3
· Lower death rates and the birth rates start to fall. The population growth rate starts to slow down. The birth rate starts to fall because of family planning, improved medical care and women marrying later.
Stage 4
· Low birth and death rates. A low natural increase and steady population. Most MEDC’s are at this stage
Stage 5
· The birth rate falls below the death rate and the population decreases. Countries such as Spain, Italy, Japan and Britain are in this stage.