Earthquake case studies

Earthquake case studies
Below are powerpoint presentations discussing the primary and secondary effects and immediate and long-term responses for both the Kobe, Japan and Kashmir, Pakistan earthquakes.

Effects of the Italian earthquake –
Responses to Italian earthquake –
The Kobe earthquake –
General effects & responses & Kobe (Rich) & Kashmir (Poor)

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Kobe earthquake (Rich country)

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Haiti 2010 – Poor country
On 12th January, an earthquake measuring 7.0 on the Richter scale struck close to Haiti’s capital Port-au-Prince
The earthquake occurred at a destructive plate margin between the Caribbean and North American Plates, along a major fault line.
The earthquakes focus was 13km underground, and the epicentre was just 25km from Port-au-Prince
Haiti has suffered a large number of serious aftershocks after the main earthquake

Primary effects
About 220,000 people were killed and 300,000 injured
The main port was badly damaged, along with many roads that were blocked by fallen buildings and smashed vehicles
Eight hospitals or health centres in Port-au-Prince collapsed or were badly damaged. Many government buildings were also destroyed
About 100,000 houses were destroyed and 200,000 damaged in Port-au-Prince and the surrounding area. Around 1.3 million Haitians were displaced (left homeless)

Secondary effects
Over 2 million Habitats were left without food and water.
Looting became a serious problem
The destruction of many government buildings hindered the government’s efforts to control Haiti, and the police force collapsed
The damage to the port and main roads meant that critical aid supplies for immediate help and longer-term reconstruction were prevented from arriving or being distributed effectively
Displaced people moved into tents and temporary shelters, and there were concerns about outbreaks of disease. By November 2010, there were outbreaks of Cholera
There were frequent power cuts
The many dead bodies in the streets, and under the rubble, created a health hazard in the heat. So many had to be buried in mass graves

Short-term responses
The main port and roads were badly damaged, crucial aid (such as medical supplies and food) was slow to arrive and be distributed. The airport couldn’t handle the number of planes trying to fly in and unload aid
American engineers and diving teams were used to clear the worst debris and get the port working again, so that waiting ships could unload aid
The USA sent ships, helicopters, 10,000 troops, search and rescue teams and $100 million in aid
The UN sent troops and police and set up a Food Aid Cluster to feed 2 million people
Bottled water and water purification tablets were supplied to survivors
Field hospitals were set up and helicopters flew wounded people to nearby countries
The Haitian government moved 235,000 people from Port-au-Prince to less damaged cities

Long-term responses
Haiti is dependent on overseas aid to help it recover
New homes would need to be built to a higher standard, costing billions of dollars
Large-scale investment would be needed to bring Haiti’s road, electricity, water and telephone systems up to standard, and to rebuild the port
Sichuan, China 2008 – Poor country case study
On 12th May at 14:28pm, the pressure resulting from the Indian Plate colliding with the Eurasian Plate was released along the Longmenshan fault line that runs beneath. This led to an earthquake measuring 7.9 on the Richter scale with tremors lasting 120 seconds.

Primary effects
· 69,000 people were killed
· 18,000 missing
· 374,000 were injured
· between 5 -11 million people were missing
· 80% of buildings collapsed in rural areas such as Beichuan county due to poorer
building standards
· 5 million buildings collapsed

Secondary effects
· Communication were brought to a halt – neither land nor mobile phones worked in Wenchuan
· Roads were blocked and damaged and some landslides blocked rivers which led to flooding
· Fires were caused as gas pipes burst
· Freshwater supplies were contaminated by dead bodies

Immediate responses
· 20 helicopters were assigned to rescue and relief effects immediately after the disaster
· Troops parachuted in or hiked to reach survivors
· Rescuing survivors trapped in collapsed buildings was a priority
· Survivors needed food, water and tents to shelter people from the spring rains. 3.3 million new tents were ordered.

Long-term responses
· Aid donations specifically money – over £100 million were raised by the Red Cross
· One million temporary small were built to house the homeless
· The Chinese government pledged a $10 million rebuilding funds and banks wrote off debts by survivors who did not have insurance